Overview

Rwanda is a country situated in Central Africa, bordered to the North by Uganda, to the East by Tanzania, to the South by Burundi and to the West by the Democratic Republic of Congo. Rwanda’s total area is Km2 26,338, with a population density estimated to be 445 people per km².

Name Republic of Rwanda
Capital City Kigali
Currency Rwandan Franc (FRW)
Time Zone UTC +2 (Central Africa Time)

26,338 Km²

Size

Bắn cá rồng12.3 Million

Bắn cá rồngPopulation (NISR Projection 2019)

21°-27°

Bắn cá rồngTemperature

67 years

Bắn cá rồngLife expectancy

$787

GDP per capital

+8%

GDP growth per annum

The National Flag

Bắn cá rồngThe national flag comprises of the following colours from the bottom to the top: a green strip, followed by a yellow strip both of which cover half the flag. The upper half is blue and bears on its right hand side the image of the sun with its rays of golden yellow. The sun and its rays are separated by a blue ring. The characteristics, description, ceremonial and respect of the National Flag are determined by the law.

The Seal

Bắn cá rồngThe Seal of the Republic of Rwanda consists of a green ring with a knot of the same colour tied at the lower edge of the ring; on the top are the imprints “REPUBLIC OF RWANDA”. Below the knot is the national motto “UNITY, WORK, PATRIOTISM”. All imprints are written in black characters on a yellow background. It also consists of: the sun, its rays, sorghum and coffee, a small basket, a blue cogged wheel and one shield at the right hand side and another at the left hand side.

Bắn cá rồngNational Anthem

The title of the national Anthem is “RWANDA NZIZA” [Beautiful Rwanda]. It consists of four (4) verses which generally praise the beauty of Rwanda as the common cradle of all Rwandan people and emphasises the unity of all Rwandan people. The Anthem also emphasizes the common characteristics of Rwandans and Rwandan values as their common heritage and the pillar of national development.

Geography

Bắn cá rồngRwanda is a landlocked country situated in central Africa. Also known as ’The Land of a Thousand Hills’, Rwanda has five volcanoes, 23 lakes and numerous rivers, some forming the source of the River Nile. The country lies 75 miles south of the equator in the Tropic of Capricorn, 880 miles ’as the crow flies’ west of the Indian Ocean and 1,250 miles east of the Atlantic Ocean - literally in the heart of Africa. The Altitude ranges from 1000m to 4500m above the sea level.

Bắn cá rồngRwanda is bordered by Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, Burundi to the south and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west.

Bắn cá rồngRwanda has two rainy seasons, March – May and October – November, with an average rainfall of 110-200 mm per month. 

Bắn cá rồngThe average Temperature ranges from 24.6 to 27.6ºc, with the Hottest months being August, and September. 

Bắn cá rồngThe Main water bodies are Lake Kivu, Lake Muhazi, Lake Ihema, Lake Bulera, Lake Ruhondo, Lake Mugesera.

Rwanda's Vegetation ranges from dense equatorial forest in the north-west of the country to tropical savannah in the east.

Main National Parks/Animal Reserves are Akagera, Volcanoes and Gishwati-Mukura National Parks.

In Rwanda the great animals of the wild are protected from poachers and roam free in the vast national parks. The Volcanoes National Park in the Virunga volcanic mountains with its high altitude forests is world famous for mountain gorillas - timid and passive family oriented giants. The Park is teeming with wildlife both large and small, while Lake Kivu to the west offers beautiful beaches, jutting peninsulas and an archipelago of islands.

1000m - 4500m

Altitude (Above sea level)

21°-27°

Bắn cá rồngTemperature

4,507m

Bắn cá rồngThe highest point

950 m

The lowest point

People & Culture

Bắn cá rồngWith an estimated total population of 12.3 million people, Rwanda is a relatively young country.  50 percent of the Rwandan population is under 20 years old, with the median age standing at 22.7 years old. 

 

Rwandans share cultural values notably unity, patriotism, social cohesion, resilience, hard work among others, with Kinyarwanda being the common language, spoken in all parts the country. Other official languages are English, French and Kiswahili. 

 

The country's rich culture has become as a source of inspiration to craft some unconventional, home grown solutions to address the challenges and the consequences of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. These include among others, Umuganda (Community work), Imihigo (Performance contracts), Gacaca [traditional] courts, Abunzi. 

 

Bắn cá rồngUmuganura or harvest day remains the country's largest festivity where Rwandans from all corners of the country meet to celebrate achievements in different sectors and recommit to doubling effort to achieve more. 

 

Bắn cá rồngMusic and dance make an integral part of Rwandan ceremonies, with Umushayayo and Intore dances having won the hearts of cultural performance lovers.

 

Rwandan artcrafts display high level of skills and creativity in the country of thousand hills, with Agaseke or handwoven basket having won international acclaim. Imigongo pattern and Rwanda's growing fashion industry have also become iconic of the Made in Rwanda brand. 

 

Rwandapedia

Bắn cá rồngLearn more about Rwanda's homegrown solutions inspired by the country's rich culture.

Bắn cá rồngNational Museums

Bắn cá rồngLearn more about Rwanda's traditional life - arts, music and dance.

Rwanda Academy of Language and Culture

Learn more about Kinyarwanda Language and the Rwandan Culture

History

For centuries, Rwanda existed as a centralized monarchy under a succession of Tutsi kings from one clan, who ruled through cattle chiefs, land chiefs and military chiefs. The king was supreme but the rest of the population, Bahutu, Batutsi and Batwa, lived in symbiotic harmony. In 1899, Rwanda became a German colony and, in 1919, the system of indirect rule continued with Rwanda as a mandate territory of the League of Nations, under Belgium.
 

From 1959, Batutsi were targeted, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths and sending almost two million of them into exile. The First Republic, under President Gregoire Kayibanda, and the second, under President Juvenal Habyarimana, institutionalized discrimination against Batutsi and subjected them to period massacres.

Bắn cá rồngThe Rwandese Alliance for National Unity (RANU) was formed in 1979 by Rwandan refugees in exile, to mobilize against divisive politics and genocide ideology, repeated massacres, statelessness and the lack of peaceful political exchange. In 1987, RANU became the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF). On 1 October 1990, the RPF launched an armed liberation struggle that ultimately ousted the dictatorship in 1994 and ended the genocide which cost more than one million lives – Batutsi and moderate Bahutu who opposed the genocidal regime.

After Kigali fell to RPA (RPF’s armed wing) on 4 July 1994, RPF formed a Government of National Unity headed by President Pasteur Bizimungu, bringing parties that did not participate in the genocide together. In 2000, Parliament voted out President Pasteur Bizimungu and RPF appointed then Vice-President and Minister of Defence, Major General Paul Kagame as the President of the Republic to lead the coalition government.

Bắn cá rồngIn 2003 President Paul Kagame was elected with landslide majority to serve a term of seven years. During those seven years, the country made unprecedented socio-economic and political progress and consolidated peace, stability as well as social cohesion among Rwandans. In 2010 and 2017, President Paul Kagame was re-elected to serve the second and third term respectively, on a platform of rapid development for the transformation of the lives of all Rwandans.

Genocide

Over one million Rwandans were brutally killed in 100 days during the 1994 Genocide Against the Tutsi. The worst Genocide of the 20th century was prepared and implemented by the genocidal regime which trained Interahamwe militia and extremist Hutus to kill Tutsis and Hutus opposed to the killing using machetes, clubs, spears and other traditional weapons, with the full support of government security forces. Some of the victims were abandoned in the hands of the killers by the United Nations Peace Keeping forces, demonstrating a failure of the International community despite the "Never Again" pledge adopted in 1945. 

Rwandans commemorate the 1994 Genocide Against the Tutsi on April 7 which was also adopted by the United Nations as the International Day of Reflection on the Genocide Against the Tutsi. The commemoration (also known in Kinyarwanda as Kwibuka) provides an important opportunity to remember the victims of the genocide, preserve its evidence and educate about its history as well as the lessons that Rwanda has learned. In Rwanda, commemoration activities run until July 4 when the Rwanda Patriotic Army stopped the genocide and liberated the country.   

Bắn cá rồngGenocide is never spontaneous. It is an intentional act of multiple murders, aimed at destroying the presence of the victim group. Its perpetrators do not respect age, gender, occupation, religion or status. Not every act of genocidal violence results in genocide itself. Different types of crisis have different names, such as politicide (murder of political groups) and ethnocide (murder of ethnic groups). This does not imply that one is ’better’ or ’worse’ than the other, but that they are different in either motivation or outcome. Whatever the term used; victims of mass murder feel, often with good reason, that they have suffered a genocidal attempt on their lives.

Bắn cá rồngThe exhibition at the Kigali Memorial Centre introduces several genocides and genocidal-type situations. It does not give examples of all genocidal massacres because of limited space. It can only illustrate a few examples, representing a tragic cross-section of a century of genocide..

Kwibuka

Bắn cá rồngKwibuka means ‘to remember’ and describes the annual commemoration of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda.

National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide

Was established by Law Nº09/2007 of 16/02/2007.

Kigali Genocide Memorial

The Kigali Genocide Memorial is the final resting place for more than 250,000 victims of the Genocide against the Tutsi