Rwanda is composed of two layers of government - central and local government, and six administrative entities. The country is divided into Provinces and the City of Kigali, Districts, Sectors, cells and villages.
Provinces and Kigali City
Rwanda is currently composed of two layers of government (central and local) and of six administrative entities: These structures, which were reorganised under the 2005 reform, are complementary. The country is divided into four Provinces and the City of Kigali which are also further divided into 30 districts. Moreover, the districts are further divided into 416 Sectors. Additionally, the sectors are further divided into 2148 cells and lastly, these cells are divided into 14837 villages. All these subdivisions are headed by different people at every level and they all have different roles though directing towards the same cause.
The Province serves as a coordinating organ to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of Central Government planning, execution, and supervision of the decentralized services. It serves mainly as an advisor to the decentralized entities and coordinates development activities. There are four provinces and the City of Kigali. The provinces are: the , the , the and the . Each Province is headed by a “Governor” who is appointed by the presidential decree or cabinet to supervise the functioning of the organs of the district in accordance with powers he or she is given by law.
The Administrative Structure of the Province is as follows:
i) The Governor of the Province
The Governor of the Province is the custodian of the authority of the State and the Government’s delegate in the Province. The main functions of the Governor of Province are: to ensure the execution of and adherence to existing laws and regulations; to ensure the implementation of Government programs; and to take, within its competence and based on instructions from the Government, all measures and initiatives to promote the general development of the Province.
(ii) The Provincial Executive Secretary (ES)
The Provincial Permanent Secretary ensures the coordination of the administrative and technical services of the Province.
Bắn cá rồngTHE DISTRICTS (30)
Until 2001, districts were known as communes. In 2006, the number of districts was reduced from 106 to 30. Click to view maps of the 30 districts.
Bắn cá rồngThe districts are listed below, by province.
Bắn cá rồngThe above-mentioned districts are headed by mayors and are altogether further divided into 416 sectors. “Inasmuch, the district is an autonomous administrative entity with a legal status with administrative and financial autonomy. Like other administrative entities, the district is an entity for the promotion of democracy and a basis for socio-economic development. It is responsible for the promotion of solidarity of the population in its development efforts and the development of their district.” Find a document on Rwanda’s structure and organisation:
A district is administered by the district council through which policies are formulated and adopted. The day to day business of the district is run by the Executive committee headed by a Mayor and two vice-mayors.
Bắn cá rồngTHE SECTORS (416)
Bắn cá rồngThe Sector is a territorial administrative entity responsible for implementation of development programs, service delivery, and promotion of good governance and social welfare.
The Sector shall have the following responsibilities:
Bắn cá rồng1° Develop the sector development plan;
Bắn cá rồng2° Provide quality services;
3° Ensure proper management of public assets;
4° Coordinate activities of special government programs;
Bắn cá rồng5° Ensure the use of technology;
6° Monitor and coordinate the Cells
7 Ensure the welfare of the population;
8° Ensure security and safety of population and that of their property;
Bắn cá rồng9° Mobilize resources and ensure proper management of resources provided by competent organs.
The following is the administrative structure at the Sector level.
(i) The Sector Council (SC)
There is a political organ for policy-making decisions called the Sector Council. The number of Sector Council members is determined by the number of Cells forming the Sector. The Sector Council’s functions include approval of Sector action plans and programmes and ensuring the follow-up of their implementation.
The Sector Council comprises of the following members: (article 29)
Bắn cá rồng1° A Cell representative elected by the Cell Council;
2° Members of the National Youth Bureau at Sector level;
Bắn cá rồng3° Members of National Women Bureau at Sector level;
4° A representative of persons with disabilities in the Sector;
5° Women representatives constituting at least 30% of members of the Sector Council;
6° A representative of heads of all primary schools in the Sector;
7° A representative of heads of all secondary schools in the Sector;
8° A representative of Non-Governmental Organisations operating in the Sector;
9° A representative of co-operative societies in the Sector;
10° A leader representing hospitals, health centres or other health facilities operating in the Sector.
Bắn cá rồngSector Council members shall take oath of office provided for in Article 61 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of 04 June, 2003 as amended to date before the electorate.
Members of the Sector Council shall elect from its members the Sector Bureau comprised of the following members: 1° a Chairperson; 2° a Vice Chairperson; 3° a Secretary. Elections of the Sector Council Bureau shall be held in transparency in accordance with laws and regulations of the National Electoral Commission. (article 30)
(ii) The Sector Executive secretariat
The Sector Executive Secretariat comprises of the Executive Secretary and other essential staff appointed by the District Council through competition and in accordance with the organizational chart of each Sector approved by relevant (article 31 of Presidential Order N° 28/01 of 06/7/2009 modifying and complementing the Presidential Order n° 57/01 of 15/10/2006 determining the responsibilities, structure and functioning of Village, Cell and Sector
The Sector Executive Secretary shall have a minimum qualification of a University degree or any other Higher Education degree within A0 category.
Bắn cá rồngThe Cell is an entity that provides basic services and helps the population to achieve sustainable development.
The following administrative structures are established at Cell level:
Bắn cá rồng1° A Council;
Bắn cá rồng2° An Executive Secretariat;
Bắn cá rồng3° A Development Consultative Committee.
The Cell Council is the supreme Cell organ. It shall take decisions on all matters related to Cell responsibilities in accordance with laws, orders and instructions adopted by superior organs.
Bắn cá rồngThe Cell Council mobilizes the residents of the Cell, identifies, discusses and prioritizes the problems of the Cell, and takes decisions for their resolution.
The Cell Council comprises of the following members:
1° Councillors elected by the population in the Villages constituting the Cell. Each Cell elects one councillor to represent it to the Cell Council;
2° Women Councillors should constitute at least thirty percent (30%) of Council members;
Bắn cá rồng3° The Coordinator of the National Women’s Council at the Cell level;
4° The Coordinator of the National Youth Council at the Cell level;
Bắn cá rồng5° A representative of Heads of nursery schools in the Cell;
Bắn cá rồng6° A representative of teachers of primary schools in the Cell;
7° A representative of the private sector in the Cell.
(ii) Cell executive secretariat
The Executive Secretariat is comprised of the Executive Secretary and other necessary staff.
Bắn cá rồngMembers of the Cell Executive Secretariat are District employees appointed by the district council. They are designated to the Sector, and must hold at least a six-year secondary education or equivalent
The Cell has two technical staff composed of the Cell Executive Secretary and Social Economic Development Officer.
Bắn cá rồngThe Development Consultative Committee shall comprise of the following members:
1° The Heads of all Villages in the Cell;
Bắn cá rồng2° representatives of Intore residing in each village of the Cell;
Bắn cá rồng3° a representative of the forum or association of non-governmental organizations operating in the Cell;
Bắn cá rồng4° a representative of teachers of all secondary schools in the Cell if any;
Bắn cá rồng5° other persons deemed necessary by the Cell administration.
Members of the Development Consultative Committee among themselves shall elect the chairperson. The Cell Executive Secretary is the rapporteur of the Development Consultative Committee meetings.
1.Advise the Cell on economic developmental issues;
2° Assess the implementation of programs resolved by higher competent authorities and of those resolved by the Cell Council;
Bắn cá rồng3° Advise Community Development 1° Committees (CDC) on developmental activities relevant to Cell responsibilities;
4° Monitor on how services are delivered to the population;
Bắn cá rồng5° Identify priority activities for poverty reduction and service delivery;
6° Monitor the implementation of poverty reduction programs in the Cell;
Bắn cá rồng7° Advise on equitable distribution of developmental activities in the Cell;
Bắn cá rồngTHE VILLAGES
The Village is an administrative entity in which the population directly participates in their own affairs and where they can reconcile their differences. It is the basic population mobilization entity entrusted with the following responsibilities:
1° collect basic statistical data and submit it to responsible offices for database
2° Ensure security and resolve conflicts
Bắn cá rồng3° Disseminate to the population factual information about government programs, mobilize population to implement them, collect information about these programs and submit it to the Cell;
Bắn cá rồng 4° Monitor and evaluate households’ performance contracts and prepare Village performance contracts;
Bắn cá rồng5° Ensure village population are enlightened and are characterized by splendid behaviour of Synergy and solidarity.
6° Instil into the population the culture of patriotism;
7° Take decisions on other issues delegated by higher authorities.
There are 14 837 villages in Rwanda. The Village is the smallest politico-administrative entity of the Country and hence closest to the people. Therefore, this is the entity through which the problems, priorities and needs of the people at a grassroots level will be identified and addressed. It is also the basic unit for mobilization and interaction of the population.
The village is headed by three organs namely the Council and the Executive Committee. The village’s council is the supreme organ of all the three as it is made up of all the village’s residents aged at least 18 years old and above. Additionally, it is also in charge of electing the members of the village’s executive committee. On the other hand, the village’s executive committee is made up of the village’s head, The in-charge of social welfare and family relations, The in-charge of security, Immigration and Emigration in the Village, The in-charge of information and training and The in-charge of development.
Bắn cá rồngLeaders at the Village level are volunteers who are elected, to serve their country, through a direct and universal suffrage by all the residents of the village aged above 18. They don't handle any technical issues.
The Village Executive Committee
The Village is administered by the Executive Committee comprising of five (5) people:
1° The Village Coordinator;
2° The in-charge of social welfare and family relations
Bắn cá rồng3° The in-charge of security, Immigration and Emigration in the Village;
Bắn cá rồng4° The in-charge of information and training;
Bắn cá rồng5° The in-charge of development.
Members of the Village Executive Committee is elected from honest Village citizens in accordance with the electoral law at that level. They serve five (5) years in the office. They take an oath of office provided for in article 16 of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of 4 June 2003 as amended to date. This is done in front of the electorate immediately after elections.
The Village Executive Committee meets once in fifteen days and at any time necessary. It is convened and chaired by the Village Coordinator.
Decentralization in Rwanda
Since 2001 when Rwanda started its journey of decentralization and the establishment of strong local governments, much has transpired in terms of capacity building for effective leadership.
Today, in Rwanda are capable of handling complex tasks, which were previously unheard of in local governments set up; this is a result of capacity building initiatives since the start of decentralization. Local government capacity building strategy and its implementation plan are in place, local government capacity needs assessment has been conducted and individual district capacity building plan elaborated. In addition, local capacity building is one of the focus areas in the decentralization sector strategic plan for 2013-2018, which is in line with EDPRS2. Most importantly the local government institute responsible for capacity development for local government authorities is in the process of establishment.
Bắn cá rồngLocal governments in Rwanda have through decentralization process implemented and a lot has been achieved in terms of xiii constitutional and legal recognition for local democracy, political freedom to elect local representatives, partnership and cooperation between spheres of government; defined legislative framework, citizens’ participation in local decision making, open local government in terms of accountability and transparency, scrutiny of the executive, inclusiveness, adequate and equitable resource allocation and equitable services.
Ministry of Local Government